Quran is a Book of guidance that contains instructions aimed at helping mankind live their lives on the path of righteousness till the end of times. However, this should not lead to the impression that Quran is only full with prophecies of future, rather Quran contains the stories of the nations of the past on the bases of which it conveys the moral lesson to the audience.
Quran mentions various nations that have come before in the world and for the guidance of which Allah sent His Messengers. When we learn the Holy Quran we find that all the Messenger that came to the respective nation carried the message of Oneness of Allah and told them about the right path to follow in order to stay virtuous and prosper in the world hereafter.
In Quran, there are mentions of 25 Prophets by name including Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). The following lines will cover the Prophets that are known in other Abrahmic religions as well by showing their mention in Quran in addition to the nation they were sent to guide.
Hazrat Adam (AS) was the first of humans and Prophets. He was the one who was first sent to this world and with him came the message of Allah being the Lord and all the humans his subjects. Hazrat Adam (AS) is primarily known for the genesis of humankind and how the first human was created. Allah Almighty says about him in Quran:
“And behold, We said to the angels: “Bow down to Adam” and they bowed down. Not so Iblis: he refused and was haughty: He was of those who reject faith (those who are disobedient).” (2:34)
From the ayah it is clear that Adam (AS) was the first human creation of Allah Almighty, and Iblis was expelled from the court of Allah because of not bowing to him.
Hazrat Nooh (AS) is also one of the renowned Prophets in the Abrahmic religion. The reason behind the popularity of Nooh (AS) is because of the event of his making of an arch and the flood that came upon earth in which only the beings on the arch were saved. The narrations give different versions of the flood and the making of the arch, however, a Muslim needs to understand the backdrop of that catastrophe as well, which was the people of Nooh (AS) not listening to his preaching and persisting with sinful life. Quran tells of them in the following way:
“We (once) sent Nooh (AS) to his people, and he tarried among them a thousand years less fifty: but the Deluge overwhelmed them while they (persisted in) sin.” (29:14)
Hazrat Saleh (AS) was the Prophet of Allah who was sent in the nation of Thamud. He is known for the event of when Allah sent a she-camel for his nation from which they would drink milk. They were allowed to drink from it but not harm it or otherwise punishment of Allah would befall upon them. They ignored the order of Allah and the promised punishment came to all of them and destroyed them all. In Quran, the mention of it is in the following way:
“To the Thamud people (We sent) Saleh one of their own brethren: he said: “O my people! Worship Allah; you have no other god but Him. Now has come unto you a clear (sign) from your Lord! This she-camel of Allah is a sign unto you: so leave her to graze in Allah’s earth and let her come to no harm, or you shall be seized with a grievous punishment.” (7:73)
Hazrat Ibrahim (AS) is one of the most renowned and popular Prophets in the Abrahmic religions. All Christians, Jews and Muslims respect him and acknowledge his Prophethood. In the Muslim discourse, Prophet Ibrahim (AS) is known as ‘Khaleel ullah” which means the ‘friend of Allah’. This name was given to him because of the generosity he exhibited for the sake of Allah and all the trials and sacrifices which he gave in the name of Allah. In Quran, Allah Almighty says about him:
“Who can be better in religion than one who submits his whole self to Allah, does good, and follows the way of Abraham the true in faith? For Allah did take Abraham for a friend.” (4:125)
Therefore, Abraham (AS) was the one whom Allah befriended, thus words fall short of explaining his greatness and all that he had sacrificed in the name of Allah and for the path of righteousness.
Hazrat Yaqoob (AS) known as Jacob was the grandson of Prophet Ibrahim (AS). He had the nickname ‘Israel’ and it is from him that the different tribes of Jews descent. Hazrat Yaqoob (AS) is known for his twelve sons from whom the humanity sprung and then expanded to different parts of the world. He was a Prophet and taught the path of righteousness to his people and conveyed the same message to his sons as well some of whom later on became Prophets. Quran tells of his preaching to his sons in the following way:
“….Then behold, he said to his sons: “What will you worship after me?” They said: “We shall worship your God and the God of your fathers – of Abraham, Ishmaeel and Isaac, – the one (true) God to Him we bow.” (2:133)
Another renowned Prophet in the Abrahmic religions is Prophet Yousuf (AS). He is known for the unmatched beauty that he possessed and the impact of his beauty on the other people. There is the whole narration of his brothers abandoning him, he being tempted by his Lady, his resistence to it and the consequent worldly punishments he faced. However, the moral of the story is that sticking to the path of righteousness does come with hardships but ultimately it is the good that succeeds which happened with Prophet Yousuf (AS) who at the end received all what he had lost. In Quran, Allah says about him:
“When Joseph attained his full manhood, We gave him power and knowledge: thus do We reward those who do right.” (12:22)
Hazrat Musa (AS) is the most renowned Prophet of Jews, acknowledge in Christianity and respected in Islam as are all the other Prophets. There are numerous narrations pertaining to Hazrat Musa (AS) and how he preached his nation. The famous of them are; when Pharaoh ordered to kill all the boys because of the prophecy of his dethroning yet Musa (AS) survived and grew up in the house of Pharaoh, when he spoke with Allah Almighty on Mount Toor, the commandments he brought to his people, the rescuing of the people from Pharaoh, all the inflictions that came upon the nation of Pharaoh because of not listening to him and eventually the drowning of Pharaoh and his army in the river Nile when they were in the pursuit of Musa (AS) and the people of Israel.
Muslims regard Hazrat Eesa (AS) as the true Prophet of Allah, the religion Christianity was founded by him, however, the Jewish people do not accept him as a Prophet. In narrations Hazrat Eesa (AS) is renowned for his miracles the best of them all is his being born without a father. In Quran, Allah says:
“This similitude of Jesus before Allah is as that of Adam: He created him from dust, then said to him: “Be” and he was.” (3:59)
In addition to his birth without a father, Eesa (AS) is also known for his converting water into wine, curing leprosy and waking up of the dead. His death is also one of the most renowned and most debated events in all the Abrahmic religions.
In short, there are mentions of other of Prophets in Quran and the scholars agree to a figure of one hundred and twenty four thousand Prophets that Allah had sent for the guidance of mankind – but not all of them are mentioned in Quran by name. With the mentions of Prophets, Allah Almighty actually wants to convey to us morals regarding how the nations behaved with their Prophets and which acts of theirs brought the wrath of Allah upon them, so that we could refrain from all such acts.