The large and impressive sweep of Muslims in Arabia was not bearable for the Kuffars.
It was the sixth year of Hijri when the treaty of Hudaibiya(Al-Ḥudaybiyah) A turning point in the history of Islam was made between kuffars and the Muslims in the Holy Month of Dhu al-Qa’dah, and this is one of the 5 major events of Dhu’l-Qi’dah(Dhul Qadah) .
So, in the 6th year of Hijri, Prophet SAW marched towards Makkah with 1500 Muslims and also with his wife Umm Salamah.
A large army of non-Muslims blocked their way towards Makkah. Prophet SAW consulted his companions and they believed that they would fight none unless they were debarred from performing their pilgrimage.
In this situation, “Urwah” conveyed his feelings to Quresh that
“I have been to Chosroes, Caesar, and Negus in their kingdoms, but never have I seen a king among a people like Muhammad SAW among his Companions. If he performs his ablution, they would have the mucus to rub their faces with; if he speaks, they would lower their voices. They will not abandon him for anything in any case. He, now, offers you a reasonable plan, so do what you please.”
Time passed by, negotiations went on but with no result.
Uthman bin Affan went to Abu sufyan as an envoy and told them they just want to perform worship there and they had no intention to fight. Uthman bin Affan also called them towards Islam. He also told them that after performing ceremonies they would depart peacefully. Uthman bin Affan was also offered to perform pilgrimage but he denied by saying that how could I when our prophet SAW is denied of it?
After that Muslims waited for long for the return of Uthman but his arrival was considered late so at this point and Muslims considered it a foul play by Quresysh. This is the time when companions of prophet stood firmly by Muhammad SAW under all conditions. This pledge is known as Bay’ at Ar-Ridwan(a covenant of fealty). Al-Asadi and Salamah bin Al-Akwa were the first men who gave a solemn promise to die in the cause of Allah, at the front of the army, in the middle and the rear. The prophet SAW after holding his hand on behalf of Uthman. This fealty was sworn under a tree with Umar holding the prophet ‘s hand and ma’aqil bi Yasar holding a branch of the tree up. The noble Quran referred to that pledge in the following words:
“Indeed, Allah was pleased with the believers when they gave their bai’a(pledge) to you (O Muhammad SAW under the tree.”[48:18]
Quraish after seeing this determination of Muslims and their faith, after some interchange of messages they agreed to conclude a treaty.
The main clauses of the Treaty Of Hudaibiya are:
Here are the 5 major clauses of the Treaty Of Hudaibiya:
- The Muslims shall return this time and come back next year, but they shall not stay in Makkah for more than three days.
- They shall not come back armed but can bring with them swords only sheathed in scabbards and these shall be kept in bags.
- War activities shall be suspended for ten years, during which both parties will live in full security and neither will raise the sword against the other.
- If anyone from Quraish goes over to Muhammad SAW without his guardian’s permission, he should be sent back to Quraish, but should any of Muhammad ‘s followers return to Quraish, he shall not be sent back.
- Whosoever wishes to join Muhammad SAW or enter into a treaty with him, should have the liberty to do so, and likewise, whosoever wishes to join Quraish, or enter into a treaty with them, should be allowed to do so.
When the treaty was being written, Abu Jandal, Sohail’s son appeared as he was brutally chained and was staggering with fatigue. Prophet SAW and his Companions were moved to pity after seeing this but Sohail said, “To signify that you are faithful to your contract, an opportunity has just arrived.” The prophet SAW said: “But the treaty was not signed when your son entered the camp” Upon this he burst and said, “but the terms of the treaty were agreed upon” So Prophet SAW consoled Abu jandal and said, Be patient, resign yourself to the will of Allah. Allah is going to provide for you and your helpless companion’s relief and means of escape. We have concluded a treaty of peace with them and we have taken the pledge in the name of Allah.
Why the treaty of Hudaibiya is a turning point in the history of Islam
Later incidents proved the wisdom of this treaty. The results were splendid. Now Quraish had recognized the existence of Muslims and decided to accept them on equal grounds. In the light of the treaty had admitted that they were no more interested in people other than Quresh and also washed their hands of any sort of intervention in the religious future of the Arabian peninsula. Muslims were not of the view to start bloody wars nor did they ever think of pursuing any coercive approaches to propagate Islam on the other hand their sole purpose was to provide an atmosphere of freedom as regards ideology.
Then whosoever wills, let him believe, and whosoever wills, let him disbelieve. (18:29)
Within two years of treaty, double as many entered Islam as ever before. this is supported by the fact that the prophet SAW went out to Al-Hudaibiyah with only 1400 men, but when he stout to liberate Makkah, two years later he had 10,000 men with him.
It was a great for the Muslims, indeed and in fact a turning point in the history of Islam.